Assessments: DASS-21

The DASS is a clinical assessment that measures the three related states of depression, anxiety and stress. It has 21 questions and takes about 3 minutes to complete.

The rating scale is as follows:

0: Did not apply to me at all
1: Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time
2: Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time
3: Applied to me very much, or most of the time

  • I found it hard to wind down

  • I was aware of dryness of my mouth

  • I couldn't seem to experience any positive feeling at all

  • I experienced breathing difficulty (e.g., excessively rapid breathing, breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion)

  • I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things

  • I tended to over-react to situations

  • I experienced trembling (e.g., in the hands)

  • I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy

  • I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself

  • I felt that I had nothing to look forward to

  • I found myself getting agitated

  • I found it difficult to relax

  • I felt down-hearted and blue

  • I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing

  • I felt I was close to panic

  • I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything

  • I felt I wasn't worth much as a person

  • I felt that I was rather touchy

  • I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical exertion (e.g., sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat)

  • I felt scared without any good reason

  • I felt that life was meaningless